Bangladesh is one of the most populous countries in the world. At present the population of Bangladesh is more than 160 million. This huge population will be converted into manpower only when this population can be used properly. As Bangladesh is an agricultural country, more than half of the population was directly dependent on agriculture. But at present the rate of education in Bangladesh is increasing and at the same time the manpower in agriculture is declining. On the other hand, with the increase in the rate of education, the rate of unemployment is increasing. Bangladesh’s unemployment rate in 2019 was 4.19, which is 0.09% lower than in 2016 and in 2016 it was 4.28. In 2020, the unemployment rate in Bangladesh will reach approximately 5.30. Unemployment is being created due to lack of adequate employment opportunities. In addition, the Corona epidemic has played a significant role in increasing the unemployment rate in 2020-2021.
By biotechnology we mean a technology that uses parts of an animal or a plant in a biological process to develop or create different products. Biotechnology can be a significant way to eliminate unemployment and create employment.At the present time we see various amazing discoveries, applications and fancy techniques in the world. Biotechnology in particular is playing an important role in creating new products. Therefore, the demand for biotechnology is increasing day by day in the fields of industry, environmental science, medical science, food and health. Biotechnology is playing a special role in agriculture which has given a modern dimension to the current agricultural sector. Biotechnology also plays a special role in sustainable development without harming the environment.
As Bangladesh is an agricultural economy based country, agriculture can play the biggest role in creating employment. Current production needs to be increased to meet the food needs of a large population by adapting to adverse climates. Therefore, the contribution of biotechnology in the development of stress tolerant crop varieties in response to floods, droughts, salinity and various climate change induced disasters is much greater. Biotechnology is working directly to improve fisheries and livestock, biodiversity conservation management, health care management and solving various problems in the environmental sector. At present, the use of biotechnology is a special aspect of agriculture and fish farming employment. The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) has increased seed production of endangered fish species, in vitro fertilization, corpus, catfish and genetically modified farm tilapia (GIFT) production, monosex tilapia production and hydride. In addition, some initial biotechnological studies have been conducted to produce magur and putti, and freshwater pearls. The Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka and the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, develop RAPD, MT DNA and RFLP-biotechnology techniques to characterize various commercially important fish species, including hilsa. The use of biotechnology is having a significant impact on agricultural land, as the use of biotechnology increases the soil fertility of agricultural land as well as increases the annual production on small plots of land. Moreover, it is possible to convert waste into energy through integrated biotechnology which will contribute to sustainable development while maintaining the balance of the environment.
Biotech crops are more sustainable and improved for our environment. While biotechnology requires less pesticide application and more crop cultivation with less land costs, farms use organic pesticides that improve soil health and water conservation. Through the use of biotechnology, we have reduced the application of pesticides worldwide by ? 790 million. Biotechnology enables many more farmers to relinquish or reduce previous strategies, which reduces fuel costs on farms, reduces soil erosion and further increases carbon sequestration or reduces carbon emissions. In 2006, reduced fuel consumption and combined carbon dioxide emissions from biotech crops combined with additional carbon sequestration of soil were equivalent to the removal of 31.2 billion pounds of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, equivalent to the removal of about 6.3 million vehicles a year.
Biotechnology is contributing to animal husbandry, which has developed strategies for the genetic improvement of animals, animal vaccines, disease cures and various other issues. Traditional processes such as artificial insemination and selective reproduction have come from biotechnology and are currently being widely practiced in Bangladesh. The National Institute of Biotechnology (NIB), Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU) are working on modern biotechnology for the development of livestock and poultry. According to experts, biotechnology has a special role to play in improving the genetic makeup of animals in the future. Cattle farm or poultry farm projects are having a special impact on job creation. The present government has arranged special grants for these projects.
In the field of industry, biotechnology has not yet made real progress in Bangladesh. Modern biotechnological programs involving gene transfer technology have not yet begun with real sincerity. However the results are quite encouraging and several projects are in the advanced stages, which can be taken up for commercialization. Large scale production of spirulina, bio fertilizer / organic fertilizer, baker’s yeast, citric acid has reached commercial level. Research on enzymes, single cells, proteins, etc. is also underway. A significant achievement in this regard has been the extraction of animal dung and the production of biogas from agriculture. The Institute of Energy Research and Development (IFRD) has been working in this field for a long time. As a result of research and subsequent development, more than 20,000 biogas plants have been set up in rural areas in collaboration with the Department of Power. The government has also taken an extended program to set up about one lakh biogas plants across the country, which is now being implemented. The Institute of Fuel Research and Development (IFRD), BCSIR has set up more than 25,000 domestic biogas plants across the country under three projects. So there are special opportunities for job creation in industry and commerce.
There is no alternative to providing adequate employment for economic development. On the other hand, for the sustainable development, it is necessary to conserve a sufficient number of resources for future generations and use them as and when required. But maintaining this idea and continuing development is not easy. Sustainable development is possible through the use of biotechnology while maintaining the balance of the environment and through the proper use of conservative resources. And in order to keep up with the current world, we must use our technologies properly. At the same time, manpower of the country has to be utilized. Proper use of technology is essential for the development of any country. From that point of view, it is possible to create huge employment by using biotechnology and utilizing the manpower of the country. This will reduce the number of unemployed in the country and get rid of this curse called unemployment. Sustainable development through the use of biotechnology is easy and in an environmentally friendly climate, biotechnology needs to be given more importance.