The United States and Taliban has signed an agreement on peace in Afghanistan on February 29, 2020. The main purpose of this agreement is to reduce the violence in Afghanistan as well as to end the 18-year war which has been continuing since 2001. This war started after the 9/11 attack in Twin Tower of America. U.S claimed that Al-Quada was a part of Taliban, that’s why they were started the operation ending the terrorism, U.S claimed that this terrorist attack was threat to the U.S security. But after the nine rounds of peace talk, U.S and Taliban has reached an agreement on February 29, 2020. The peace agreement has been done in the Capital of Qatar, Doha. But now the important question is ‘how peace will be established in Afghanistan? Afghanistan will go through several challenges in upcoming days. These challenges include- politics of neighbourhood countries of Afghanistan like India, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan’s natural resources, Afghanistan government and other terrorist organizations etc.
A comprehensive, durable and sustainable agreement is the outcome of long run conversation between U.S and Taliban. Peace process has been hampered by U.S Congress, U.S president, Afghanistan government and Taliban leader’s activities. Peace process started in January 2012. The first activity had destroyed by U.S Congress, U.S Congress was not willing to came into peace in 2012, Afghanistan government governed the country is based on support of U.S. Afghanistan government also opposed the peace process in 2012. The real peace talk has been started in 2015; Afghanistan government and Taliban met for first time in Pakistan, representatives of India, Pakistan and U.S were present there. The presence of these countries proved that Afghanistan is important for them. In July 30 2015, Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar was killed, for this reason Taliban opposed to continue the peace talk. Due to their leader’ death, In the middle of peace talk, Taliban delayed the peace talk. In 2016, Donald Trump was elected as president of U.S.A, Trump invited to Taliban for a peace talk. It has long run impact on peace talk between Taliban and USA. In October 23 2017, U.S secretary of state announced that Washington was willing to negotiate with the Taliban. In October 2018, U.S representative ZalmyKhalilzade and Taliban representative hold their first peace talk in Doha. This peace talk continued to 8 round table meeting on peace talk till September 2019. In September 2019, Donald Trump disrupted the peace talk due to killing an U.S soldier which hampered the long run peace talk. In December 2019, Peace talk has been started again.
Lastly, this long run peace talk has a successful outcome. In February 29, 2020, Both Taliban and U.S came into signed an agreement to end the 18-year long war.
factors which were focused on the Peace Agreement:
Firstly, cease fire. The U.S and Taliban agreed to reduce violence and continue such cease fire among the U.S, Taliban and Afghan forces. Cease fire is the deal of stop aggressive attack which is the cause of insecurity of people.
Secondly, Withdrawal of foreign forces. U.S agreed to decrease its troops from afghan. It will be from 12000 troops to 8600 troops within 135 days. If Taliban keep their commitment of not doing violence then U.S troops will leave afghan within 14 months.
Thirdly, Intra Afghan negotiations of peace. Taliban agreed to start a peace conversation with Afghanistan government in March 2020. Few days ago, Taliban leader Sirajuddin Haqqani has written in New York Times op-ed, “If we can reach an agreement with a foreign enemy, we must be able to resolve intra-Afghan disagreements through talks.”
Lastly, Assurance of counter-terrorism. The U.S claimed that Twin Tower attack of 9/11 by Al-Quada. They also claimed that Al-Quada was associated with Taliban. After 9/11 attack in 2001, U.S started ‘war on terror’ and attacked in Afghanistan. U.S announced that Al-Quada and the terrorists is the barrier against the path of U.S.
On behalf of Taliban, it has been mentioned in the agreement that an Islamic government will be established in Afghanistan, which indicates that it will be a triumph of Taliban over the U.S. Because U.S signed the agreement.
U.S troops have been in
Afghanistan since 2001:
The reasons behind USA Troops have been staying in Afghanistan:
The United States started her presence in Afghanistan in the response to the 9/11 attack.
The Taliban, a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic background group. Taliban ruled some part of Afghanistan since 1996. Taliban sheltered al-Qaeda to strengthen their organization. Taliban refused the U.S request to hand over the leader Osama leader Osama- Bin-Laden to U.S after 9/11 attack.
In 2014, U.S decided to their mission in Afghanistan, they handed over the responsibility to Afghan army and police. However, around 17000 NATO troops including U.S. service members, stayed in Afghanistan after 2014.
Challenges after Agreement
Firstly, Neighbouring country Pakistan wanted Taliban to form an Islamic government which would help the Pakistan in upcoming days. But on the other, India another neighbourhood country of Afghanistan doesn’t want Taliban government because India has a good relation with present Ghani’s government. They have also invested more than 1 billion for health, infrastructural development. As a non-muslin country they don’t want an Islamic government in Afghanistan. Now it’s up to Afghanistan government, how they treat both Pakistan and India in the matter of peace. Russia and China are also not friendly towards Taliban, which may cause delay to bring peace in Afghanistan.
econdly, many international analysts suggested that form of Taliban in the seat of Afghan government will create a friendly environment for terrorist groups. This would increase the insecurity of sub-continent.
Thirdly, in a statistics, it has been shown that there are 229 districts in Afghanistan or 56.3% in the control of Afghan government, 59 districts or 14.3% are controlled by Taliban. Another 119 districts are controlled by other terrorists groups. This has a big percentage of Afghanistan, 29.2%. Now the question is who will compromise these groups in the establishment of peace in Afghanistan. This big portion creates a big burden towards peace in Afghanistan. (Al Jazeera 24th June 2019)
Fourthly, Possibility of balancing in the demand of Afghan Taliban and U.S government, how U.S treated an Islamic government in the upcoming days? Future will say who would control whom in the Afghanistan.
The author is an under graduate student at the University of Dhaka.