In recent times, the use and demand for sustainable and friendly environmental processes for economic, public and development has been increasing rapidly. Biotechnology, one of the technologies, is currently increasing the level of development. It uses biological processes, animals or parts of it to develop or create different products. Environmental biotechnology, on the other hand, is to be used to apply to the natural environment. It further defines the development, use and control of biological processes for the treatment of polluted environments (VM, air, water) and for environmentally friendly processes (green production technology and sustainable development). It can be described as the maximum use of nature through plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and algae. Moreover, it can be used to effectively address problems related to the monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and treatment of contaminated water, air, and solid waste flows. Process modeling using environmentally polluting sources and biologically based methods is becoming increasingly important, largely due to the validity of these national strategies. The various biotechnologies available today are thus working on the sustainable use of various biological processes for wastewater, air and solid waste management such as well-established technologies.
Water, air and soil pollution in developing countries have become a permanent environmental problem due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (ECC), it has been observed that in the early stages of economic development in a particular region, the environment provided a high value for economic growth because the human race used technology to exploit all potentially valuable resources. In agriculture, the process easily drains land and transfers V-surface water to valuable water sources, leading to deteriorating water quality, which ensures the use of innovative biosensors to monitor water quality.
Rapid industrial growth has resulted in higher emissions of toxic chemicals and heavy metals into the reservoir. A certain level of pollutants transmitted to reservoirs depends on the surrounding industries. Industries such as textile, mining, tannery, metal painting, fertilizer and agro-industries, batteries, pesticides, ore refineries, petrochemicals and paper production are major contributors to soil, air and water pollution problems. Some chemicals are not biodegradable, so they accumulate in soil, air and water, and can cause problems in the food chain. This results in human health problems and the death of aquatic organisms. The presence of nitrogen and phosphorus in reservoirs increases the production of biomass in aquatic systems, which in turn reduces water quality and threatens the natural balance of these ecosystems. Although in many countries it determines the value of strong nitrogen and phosphorus discharge from wastewater. Industries often face problems in meeting these requirements. From a country’s regulatory perspective, existing wastewater management biotechnology needs to be developed or simplified in order to comply with the latest emission standards.
Heavy metals and pesticides are commonly found in water emitted from acid mines or other industrial and agricultural streams. These toxic contaminants accumulate in organisms and can cause adverse effects such as carcinogenicity and acute toxicity. Biological processes using active bacteria / fungi / mixed microbials can be completely mineralized and these contaminants and their toxic by-products can be removed. In the case of heavy metals, contaminated wastewater, biosorption is being used as a promising low-cost method and where biological catalysts are employed to remove and restore heavy metals from aqueous solutions. It is a well-known fact that sewage water from various sources is discharged into urban rivers or streams. Traditionally, one of the best tools of water quality indicator method for determining water quality in reservoirs Recent studies have proposed innovative and innovative solutions for rehabilitating urban water bodies and improving their quality. Bacterial technology (BT) can rehabilitate urbanized reservoirs such as lakes, rivers and streams.
We are all more or less familiar with greenhouses. Scientists and technologists have invented many technologies to improve our quality of life. One of the methods of planting trees in a glass house or greenhouse is to protect the plants from cold in the main winter country. But people have gradually turned this world into a greenhouse little by little. The use of black smoke from industrial plants, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, etc.) is increasing the amount of other toxic gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide. All of these toxic gases have created an impenetrable layer of glass around our green earth. The issue of global warming was raised many years ago by the Swedish scientist Arrhenius, in 1896. The people of the world’s poorest countries will be the most affected by the negative effects of global warming on the climate.
People are now much more aware of preventing global warming. The first World Earth Summit was held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with the participation of 162 countries to make the world habitable by avoiding environmental pollution. In December 1997, a landmark agreement, known as the Kyoto Protocol, was signed in Kyoto, Japan, at the initiative of the United Nations Climate Change Convention. The agreement sets out six greenhouse gas emissions and reduction emissions. These six gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
Another horrific aspect of environmental pollution is the depletion of the ozone layer. Twenty to thirty kilometers above the earth, the ozone layer protects us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays. As a result, human skin cancer, disease resistance is reduced and the normal growth of plants is also being severely damaged. The chemical that is most responsible for the depletion of this ozone layer is called chlorofluorocarbon, CFC for short.
Biotechnology is creating great opportunities for increasing global agricultural production and working to protect the environment through the reduced use of agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers. Biotechnology is playing an important role in achieving a beautiful environment and sustainable development using environmentally friendly crops such as insect resistant, herbicide tolerant species. Producing crops that can fix nitrogen and purify the environment is also needed. Global food demand is growing. On the other hand, existing land and agricultural fields have improved production and the use of modern plant breeding methods that are capable of increasing crop yields such as lemon trees to improve soil structure, organic matter and fertility. They also play a role in conserving biological resources and preventing soil erosion. Some of the beneficial effects of animals have been discussed in increasing the production of the environment.
Our lifestyle is constantly changing in the technological revolution. Chemical technology covers a large part of this technology. Different types of industries are being developed based on different types of chemical technologies. In these industrial factories we are making various kinds of daily necessities.
Environmental pollution is a common problem in all countries of the world. Various conferences, seminars, agreements are being held to prevent pollution. Scientists are talking about using environmentally friendly alternative technologies. But as a result of environmental pollution, our future is becoming increasingly uncertain. Rich countries are more responsible for this uncertainty. However, no country is free from the negative effects of environmental pollution. To survive in this world, it is important to maintain the balance of the environment. And without that, it is not impossible for our existence to disappear from the earth.
The author of this article is a student of the Environmental Science and Engineering, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh.