Humans, plants and animals all need a healthy environment to survive. The environment gives us the energy to live a healthy life. Violations of a healthy environment can lead to the death of humans and animals. Air pollution is one of the most talked about issues at present. Man has upset the natural balance with his hands-on nature and polluted the air. Now the whole atmosphere of the world is so polluted that if mankind does not try to restore the former state of pollution, in the next twenty years our earth full of this form-juice-smell will become uninhabitable.
Nitrogen and oxygen are some of the gaseous elements that make up our atmosphere. The amount of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere is 8.09% and 20.95% respectively. The combined volume of both gases is more than 99%. The gaseous constituents of the remaining 1% are argon 0.93% and carbon dioxide 0.03%. Apart from that, the presence of neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, xenon and ozone in the atmosphere is very small.
There are different levels of water vapor in the lower part of the atmosphere. The presence of water vapor is usually 100% in rain prone areas. In areas where rainfall is low, water vapor is relatively low. If the amount of water vapor in the air is high, the water that is excreted from the human body which is called sweat does not dry easily. This is why it is uncomfortable for people not to sweat due to the excess of water vapor in the air. The presence of dust in the lower part of the atmosphere pollutes the atmosphere. According to one estimate, American mills release 200,000 tons of carbon dioxide, 900,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 300,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 100,000 tons of hydrocarbons, and 300,000 tons of other waste into the atmosphere each year. About 100 million motor vehicles in the country release 60 million tons of carbon monoxide, 1 million tons of sulfur dioxide, 6 million tons of nitrogen dioxide and 12 million tons of other toxic substances into the atmosphere every year.
There are about 5,000 toxic substances in the smoke coils emitted from the mills. There are about 600 such toxins in the atmosphere of Dhaka. According to various research reports by scientists, the air in and around Dhaka contains 6 tons of dust, 115 tons of sulfur oxides, 450 tons of carbon dioxide, 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and 150 tons of hydrocarbons. There are also other more dust particles. Why only Dhaka, there is almost no place in the country to get fresh air. All the cities in the country have toxic particles and gases in their atmosphere.
One of the reasons for the pollution of the atmosphere in Bangladesh is the continuous deforestation. Unusual population growth, lack of awareness and lack of sincerity and patriotism in the creation of forests. Besides, lack of law enforcement and rampant corruption are the main reasons for deforestation. As forests are shrinking, the number of dust particles in the atmosphere is increasing and this is reducing rainfall. In addition, deforestation is disrupting the natural structure of the soil, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
The other two pollutants in the atmosphere are chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The production of chemical fertilizers in the world is increasing every year. As a result, the amount of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere is increasing exponentially. DDT and other pesticides are poisoning water and air. Unplanned application of these products in agriculture pollutes the air and makes the animals sick. Experts believe that these applications could lead to a catastrophic loss of the earth’s natural balance. Part of the toxic pesticide contamination is mixing with our food, water and air during respiration. Cancer, asthma and most diseases of the heart, bronchitis, bleeding in the brain are also included in this disease.
Oxygen is essential for the survival of the world’s fauna, including humans. Humans are constantly taking in oxygen from the atmosphere around them and emitting carbon dioxide. It is not possible for a human being to survive for more than 3-4 minutes without oxygen. Nitrogen is vital for any living thing. It helps in the formation of proteins in the body of the animal. Nitrogen has a unique role in the formation of skin and hair in the human body. The nitrogen we need is from plants. Plants, on the other hand, collect nitrogen from bacteria mixed with soil. The balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is constantly increasing due to the constant intake of oxygen by humans and the release of carbon dioxide, is being maintained naturally by the intake of carbon dioxide and the release of oxygen by plants.
Air pollution is higher in urban and industrial areas than in any other country in the world due to dense population and noise. Smoke from vehicles and factories and smoke from kitchens in these areas are increasing the presence of carbon in the atmosphere on the one hand, and increasing the temperature of the atmosphere on the other. Due to both the pollution, the people living in urban and industrial areas are being deprived of the effects of clean and pure air.
These were powered by steam engines after the introduction of trains in this world. Mineral coal was used as fuel in such engines. Due to the massive air pollution of the steam engine, its use has gradually decreased and now it has reached zero. Mechanical vehicles plying on the road are less polluted than gasoline and diesel powered. During the introduction of such fuel-powered baby taxis in our capital city Dhaka, the entire city was engulfed in smoke from morning till night. Such smoke obscurity made the environment of Dhaka city unbearable.The use of firewood in brick kilns is rapidly degrading our forests, just as the black smoke from brick kilns is intensifying air pollution.
In our country, urban household waste disposal system is not developed in a scientific way. In households where household waste is primarily kept, the amount of waste in the waste is excessive and keeping the waste in the open pollutes the surrounding atmosphere. Breathing in such polluted air can cause physical discomfort to any person. In the developed countries of the world, waste is never left open in the first place and these are always transported in covered vehicles at the end of the night. Removal sites in these countries are also in uninhabited areas far from the city. Many developed countries are now using household waste for power generation and fertilizer production. Ensuring similar use in our country will help prevent air pollution.
The developed countries of the world have been making invaluable contribution in creating a conducive and conducive environment for the people through air pollution control. The overall atmospheric environment of our country has not yet become safe for good health as we have not been as successful as the developed countries in this regard. And as long as it is not safe, air pollution will continue to be an obstacle to our improved and prosperous and normal life. Most importantly, people need to raise awareness to prevent air pollution. Although it is not possible to eradicate this problem completely, effective steps have to be taken to reduce it step by step. We have to create an environmentally friendly attitude in everyone. It is hoped that the government, concerned authorities, other agencies and the people will take concerted efforts to prevent air pollution. We should all come forward and be aware to protect the environment nationally.
The author is a student Environmental Science and Engineering, JatiyaKabiKazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh