The Novel Corona Virus Described in Details -Zuairia Zahra Haq

International

Covid-19 is a globally threatening issue for human society, which was originated in China in last December 2019. This pandemic virus subjugated people to surrender in its superiority. As a result, numerous lives fell down all over the world. To know about the origin place of this ominous virus, we can assuredly say about the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market which is located in Hubei, a landlocked province of central China. Few patients having severe pneumonia like the one feature got admitted to the hospitals. After that, an observation result disclosed to the media that the most of the patients bearing the similar type of symptoms. They were not responding to the regular type of treatment of pneumonia. In this case, the gloomiest scenario is that most of the detected patients were related to that particular market. According to our suspicious minds, either the patients were the sellers of live wild animals or the customers. They were the first patients of this virus attack. It is estimated by the experts and scientists that bats, snakes or any sea animals are the probable source of this virus. On the other hand, some experts claimed that such virus was spread from a Biological Research Centre situated in Huanan where it has been claimed that China was researching to make biological weapon. In contrast, Chana counter claimed that USA spread such virus in china as a part if war against china.
Corona virus has been categorized into six groups; are defraying a large number of virus. As an example, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) are the prime viruses that caused illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. But the Novel Corona Virus (CoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.
Usually, Corona viruses are zoonotic that can be transmitted between animals and people. One investigation informed us that SARS-CoV transferred from civet cats and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to human bodies.
Till the date (17 March, 2020), more than 198,000 people are infected and above 7000 people accepted fatality. Whereas, 77,800 recovered from the infection. Deaths were at least five times more common among people with diabetes, high blood pressure or heart or breathing problems. There is even a slightly higher number of deaths among men compared to women.
On March 11, the WHO officially declared that Covid-19 outbreak is a pandemic. WHO has been assessing this outbreak around the globe and is deeply apprehensive both by the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction.

How the virus seizes the human cells?
The virus infects the cell by fusing its oily membrane with the membrane of the cell. Once inside, the corona virus releases a snippet of genetic material called RNA. The virus’s genome is less than 30,000 genetic “letters” long. (Ours is over 3 billion.) The infected cell reads the RNA and begins making proteins that will keep the immune system at bay and help assemble new copies of the virus. Each infected cell can release millions of copies of the virus before the cell finally breaks down and dies. The viruses may infect nearby cells, or end up in droplets that escape the lungs.

How the human Immune System Responses to the attack of virus?
Most Covid-19 infections cause a fever as the immune system fights to clear the virus. In severe cases, the immune system can overreact and start attacking lung cells. The lungs become obstructed with fluid and dying cells, making it difficult to breathe. A small percentage of infections can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and possibly death. Antibiotics kill bacteria and do not work against viruses. But researchers are testing antiviral drugs that might disrupt viral proteins and stop the infection.

How it works and makes the risk for Human Body?
The corona virus spreads from person to person in close proximity, similar to other respiratory illnesses, such as the flu. Droplets of bodily fluids – such as saliva or mucus – from an infected person are dispersed in the air or on surfaces by coughing or sneezing. These droplets can come into direct contact with other people or can infect those who pick them up by touching infected surfaces and then their face. Coughing and sneezing can expel virus-laden droplets onto nearby people and surfaces, where the virus can remain infectious for several hours to several days.
Reported illnesses have ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness and death for confirmed corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases.
The following symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure.
Fever
Cough
Shortness or difficulty of breathing
To control the outspread of the virus, there are some do’s and don’ts to be followed.
Do’s
wash your hands with soap and water very often – do this for at least 20 seconds
always wash your hands when you get home or into work
use N95 mask to avoid the spreading of virus
(Unlike N95 respirators, the disposable surgical masks most people use are not designed to block the very smallest particles from entering the nose and mouth. They do lower the risk of infection but it’s next to impossible to create a perfect fit.)
use hand sanitizer gel if soap and water are not easily available
cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when you cough or sneeze
put used tissues in the bin straight away and wash your hands afterwards
try to avoid close contact with people who are sick and shows the symptoms of COVID19
And, most importantly, health officials are encouraging people to avoid public gatherings, to stay home more often and to keep their distance from others. If people are less mobile and interact with each other less, the virus has fewer opportunities to spread.
Who are at highest risk?
The death rate varies by age. The teens and young adults are rarely dying. Older people over 65, especially those with heart disease and other conditions, are more likely to die. Again, children under two years old are particularly susceptible to developing severe complications such as pneumonia. Middle-aged and elderly adults are most likely to contract the virus, while children and teenagers seem to rarely get seriously ill, but can spread the disease.
An analysis of about 44,000 cases of COVID-19 from China through February 11 shows that the elderly are most vulnerable: People 80 and older were more likely to die when infected than younger people were. For example, nearly 15 percent of those 80 and older who got the disease died. In comparison, those under age 10 seemed to rarely get seriously ill from the disease and there were no deaths in this age group. We can observe the example of Italy, too. The fatality rate is second highest in this country. One most crucial reason behind the scenario is a large chunk of population of this country comprises of elderly people.

The Global scenario of its spread, infection and death toll
The number of overall corona virus cases in China has been rising since January, but has been leveling off over the last couple of weeks. The country still has the highest number of confirmed cases of any country. Government and regional officials have imposed tight restrictions in a bid to reduce infections, including cancelling flights, closing schools and workplaces and ordering some cities to go into lockdown. The country is now tightening travel restrictions to try and prevent imported cases, so all international arrivals in the capital Beijing will have to be quarantined for two weeks.
After China, Italy has the highest number of confirmed cases. It has almost 31,500 confirmed cases and a death toll of about 2,500, until 18 March. Italian authorities have imposed stringent restrictions, closing nearly all shops, bars, hairdressers, restaurants and cafes until 25 March. Schools, gyms, museums, nightclubs and other venues have also been shut, and people have been ordered to stay home and seek permission for essential travel. A number of airlines, including British Airways, Easy Jet and Ryanair, have cancelled Italy flights until the start of April.
South Korea was one of the worst-hit countries in the early stages of the corona virus outbreak. But an aggressive response has made it one of the exemplars in the midst of the pandemic. This state was smart enough to ensure swift implementation of a mass-scale testing regime as well as its consistent, transparent messaging to the public throughout the arc of the crisis. In South Korea, infections surged over a 10-day span in late February when a cluster of a few dozen cases mushroomed into more than 5,000. But rates of infection have slowed since the country snapped into action.
Europe has become the new “epicenter” of the pandemic. Iran and South Korea also have significant outbreaks, with around 14,000 and 8,000 known cases respectively. In response to the virus’s spread, countries around the world are ramping up measures to try to slow it down. Governments have halted flights from virus-hit nations, locked down towns, urged people to stay at home, and suspended major sporting and social events.

The scenario of Bangladesh
Bangladesh confirmed its first three cases of corona virus in 8th March, 2020. A few days back, these affected people, aged between 20 and 35, include two who returned home from Italy recently. Till the day of writing this article, 10 persons have been infected by COVID19 in Bangladesh according the estimation of the government. These victims are mostly have flown from the effected states recently or are their close relative who used to reside together.
The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) is the core institution dealing with the corona issue in our country. This organization is informing about the scenario everyday right at 12pm through press briefing. The COVID19 test of the suspected patients is also conveyed here. There are three hotline contact numbers for the patients showing symptoms of the virus or any issues related to the virus.
The educational institutions have been given vacation from 18th March to 31st March for safety issues. The government is trying to manage the hostile situation. We need to be conscious and serious too, to tackle it.

The Predicted Global Impact
“From an economic perspective, the key issue is not just the number of cases of COVID-19, but the level of disruption to economies from containment measures,”
Ben May, head of global macro research at Oxford Economics, said in a report.
Widespread lockdowns such as those imposed by China have been enacted in some virus hotspots, if taken disproportionately — could induce panic and weaken the global economy even more. Fears of the corona virus impact on the global economy have rocked markets worldwide, plunging stock prices and bond yields. The outbreak has led major institutions and banks to cut their forecasts for the global economy. One of the latest to do so is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
The OECD said it downgraded its 2020 growth forecasts for almost all economies. China’s gross domestic product growth saw the largest downgrade in terms of magnitude, according to the report. The Asian economic giant is expected to grow by 4.9% this year, slower than the earlier forecast of 5.7%, said OECD. Meanwhile, the global economy is expected to grow by 2.4% in 2020 — down from the 2.9% projected earlier.
The manufacturing sector in China has been hit hard by the virus outbreak. The Caixin/Markit Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index — a survey of private companies — showed that China’s factory activity contracted in February, coming in at a record-low reading of 40.3. A reading below 50 indicates contraction. Such a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing has hurt countries with close economic links to China, many of which are Asia Pacific economies such as Vietnam, Singapore and South Korea.
It was a bruising year for China. A trade war with the United States left its economy expanding at the slowest pace in 30 years. And economists estimate 4 million jobs may have been lost in 2019. This year is already being defined by the outbreak of the coronavirus which has killed thousands and has infected thousands more, putting the brakes on China’s economy.
Economists polled by Reuters expect China’s growth rate to slump to 4.5 percent in the first quarter of this year from 6 percent in the previous quarter. That would be the slowest pace since the financial crisis. With much of the country in lockdown, the virus could affect up to 42 percent of China’s economy, according to Standard Chartered.
Companies may struggle to make payments on loans leading to a rise in what is called non-performing loans of $1.1 trillion, according to Standard and Poor’s. Chinese airlines have been forced to ground planes and are expected to lose $12.8bn in revenue. Globally, the airline industry is set to lose $29bn, according to the International Air Transportation Association (IATA). And the effect of COVID-19 is being felt regionally.

The Scientists are Working
Scientists around the world are fast-tracking research. Countries like US, South Korea, Japan Italy, Cuba and others are putting effort to develop a vaccine for the virus. About 35 companies and academic institutions are racing to create such a vaccine, at least four of which already have candidates they have been testing in animals. Experts say it will still take some time to know if this vaccine, or others also in research, wills work. U.S. Researchers gave the first shot to the first person in a test of an experimental corona virus vaccine on 16th March, 2020.