Kashmir is a region ethereal countless natural beauty that made it as an attractive place for the visitors around the world and regarded as the “paradise on Earth”. Such beauty of this place has become priceless due to its ongoing turmoil situation created by 3 of the world superpower countries having atomic energy power. Despite having keen interest to visit the place many cannot for fear. It’s such unremitting insurgency that resulted the falling of the number of visitors to less than 1% since 1990 as some of the visitors were killed and several were injured resulted from the ongoing military attack. At least four warshad been taken place over this region between India Pakistan and India China ongoing violence has also been occurred since 1947 those already claimed the leave of more than 7,0000 people of Kashmir.
The region is separated into three parts and ruled by 3 world superpower countries. India controls 43% of its land with 70% of its total population. Pakistan roughly rules 37% of its land and remaining 20% is controlled by China that is mostly inhabitant area. Fighting between India and Pakistan over Kashmir was started during the partition of India in 1947. These two states fought in 1947 and 1965 over the region named as indo-Pakistan war and the last war happened in 1999, called Kargil war. India and Pakistan have also been involved in several fights over the control of Siachen Glacier region that controls the India at present. China and India fought a brief war in 1962 in Akshai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh aiming at having control of the provinces that was firmly resolved through an agreement in respecting line of actual control.
From the first half of the 1st millennium Kashmir had been remained as an independent province having different Rulers of different religion. Kashmir governance was shifted from Buddhist ruler to Mughal ruler and then possessed by Afghanis. Sikh ruler occupied the state from Afghan ruler in 1819 and in 1846 Britain took the control of this region over from Sikh rulers. Presently the territory is governed by Satya Pal Malik from 23 August 2018.
During the Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, Kashmiris were regarded independent to choose themselves as the Part of either India or Pakistan, or to establish a separate independent state. But the Local Ruler Maharaja Hori Singh chose India to be acceded into witting to get Indian Military support going against the desire of Kashmiri people. Kashmir is a territory, more than 70% of which inhabitants are Muslims and remaining is consisted of Hindu, Buddha and Sikhs. Insurgency of Kashmiris and atrocious attempt over the insurgents seeking for independence mainly emerged after Hori Sing’s decision to be the part of India.
Kashmiri’s Unceasing protests for freedom from Indian control and contemptible actions in countering those protests by Indian government had been being taken place since 1947. Several rebel groups have been emerged mainly Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Hizbul Mujahideen and Al Badr against the oppression of India seeking independence. In response to the insurgencies lead by these rebel groups, India used its arm power deploying huge number of military troops of more than 6 lakhs, half of Indian active military personnel especially after a provoked insurgency in 1990. The desire of preventing protest made Kashmir as the most militarized territory in the world and has become the most “Dangerous Zone” in the world due to the continuous unrest situation in this territory. About four operations had been taken place by Indian Army in Kashmir, namely Operation Rakshak in 1990, Operation SarpVinash in 2003, Operation Calm Down in 2016 and Operation All Out in 2017. Such operations and unremitting struggles of Kashmiris caused deaths of more than 70,000 lives including civilians, militants and Indian army.
Indian troops committed all sorts of human rights abuses in the secession of those protest. In the process of hindering the insurgency, like other face to face conflict, Indian military troops are applying same atrocious actions to the Kashmiri protestors. Enforced disappearance, encounter killing, extreme physical torture, sexual violence and other form of human rights abuses those are not left to be applied on Kashmiri civilians. From 1990 to 1994 Indian security force occurred at least five massacres to stop protests causing mass arrests, extrajudicial killing even molestation of women were conducted there. Lots of mass graves were found in Kashmir those were excavated to bury the dead bodies of the victims of enforced disappearances including rebel civilians after being killed. In an inquiry conducted by Human rights Commission in 2011, 2730 bodies were found in 4 of the 14 districts and about 6000 graves were revealed across the Indian administrated Jammu and Kashmir. Because of incremental fear, stress, tension, and uncertainty, more than 17,000 Kashmiri people during last 20 years, extracted in a survey of 2012, most of them were women.
“Women in Kashmir have suffered enormously since the separatist struggle became violent in 1989–90. Like the women in other conflict zones, they have been raped, tortured, maimed and killed. A few of them were even jailed for years together. Kashmiri women are among the worst sufferers of sexual violence in the world. Sexual violence has been routinely perpetrated on Kashmiri women, with 11.6% of respondents saying they were victims of sexual abuse.”
As the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 based on religion and the Kashmir region conosists of more than 70% Muslims, was believed to be the part of Pakistan under a referendum. But the local ruler Hari Singh desired to be the part of India aiming at having military support. One group of Kashmiri wants an independent Kashmir state while another wants to be the part of Pakistan through gaining liberation from Indian Occupation. Such desire of getting out from Indian caused lots of deaths, violence, visitors’decrement to visit Kashmir Valley and other sorts of turmoil made it as the “world’s most dangerous place”. Indian government has been expending a lot i.e. wealth and military personnel in maintaining ongoing agitations in this mostly devastated region. Here are the presumable reasons for what India is striving to keep Kashmir as its integral part despite on long lasting turmoil and huge expenses.
Keeping its geography as a bigger one through preventing all sorts of insurgents’ attempts. Besides, Jammu and Kashmir, 8 other territories of India are seeking independence from its regime.
Offering freedom to Kashmiri will harshly affect the Indian agricultural production, power generation make water problem harder as Kashmir serves as a great source of water to India for its electricity and power generation.
Indian border security against Pakistan might be weakening as an effect of acknowledging Kashmiri’s protest for freedom.
Indian PM Narendra Modi, now will strictly handle the Kashmiri problem to gain Indian people’s support as the General election is going to be held from 11 April to 19 May in this year.
Over gaining the occupation of this disputed region, India and Pakistan fought in several times along with continuous confront shellfire between border security forces of each country claiming the live of both forces.
In different phases of time, several disposal attempts of Kashmir’s dispute were taken places initiated by both countries. Immediate after the division of Pakistan and India in 1947, Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru offered a referendum to Kashmiri for choosing their desire, either being a part of India or Pakistan, or being remained as an independent state saying,
“We have declared that the fate of Kashmir ultimately has to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the Maharaja (Maharaja Hari Singh) has supported it, not only to the people of Kashmir but to the world. We will not, and cannot, back out of it.” (November 2, 1947). But the referendum was never happened later.
India brought the issue to UN council for a permanent settlement but this mediation could not resolve the disputes ever. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Imran Khan called Narendra Modi for a determinative solution in response to chaos emerged from the terrorist attack on the Indian arm force that killed 44 of its military. Imran Khan showed a positive move through giving back Indian Pilot AbhinandanVarthaman after being captured due to a downed aircraft in side Pakistan’s Border. Effective third party mediation, positive move of both countries in resolving the dispute and co-operative measures of prevalent Muslim Countries could intensify the assurance attempts of Kashmir’s citizen’s right, rather the disposal of Kashmir’s turmoil will be remained uncertain and insurgencies will be occurred continuously that will make the region more unfit for people’s lives.
The author is a student of University of Dhaka.