Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Impact & Future -By Tanvirul Islam

Insight

SOPHIA is now a name of fascination especially for the young people around the world. Recently this robot has come to Bangladesh and participated in several events at Digital World Exposition. This ‘Female’ humanoid robot can chat, smile and even tell jokes. In the contemporary time, robotics and artificial intelligence flourished immensely around the world. As a part of this technologically developed word, we should know the importance, application and negative sides of Artificial Intelligence, how Robotics affects us. At the end I will discuss problems and possibilities regarding using Artificial Intelligence in Bangladesh.

Impact & feature of Artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by machines, not like natural intelligence which is displayed by human and other animals. Capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) include: understanding human speech, competing at a high level strategic game, autonomous cars, interpreting complex data including and other such kind of task. It was founded as an academic discipline in 1956. In twenty first century, AI techniques have experienced a rising following large scale advances in computer power, large amounts of data and theoretical understanding. The scope of AI is immense as it can give people to think creatively and to pursue their roles in an innovative manner. This is possible because, representative jobs are taken away by machines. AI improves the productivity of many jobs, eliminates millions of middle and lower level positions. It also creates millions of more new positions of highly skilled management and even entry level and low skilled variety.

Applications:
Artificial intelligence (AI) is relevant to any intellectual task. It is breaking into the healthcare industry by assisting doctors. AI is developed to help doctors find the right treatments for cancer. There are more than 800 medicines and vaccines to treat cancer. A study reported that artificial intelligence is as good as trained doctors in identifying skin cancers. It has been used to try and monitor multiple high-risk patients by asking each patient numerous questions based on data acquired from live doctor to patient interactions.
Automotive Advancements in AI have contributed to the growth of the automotive industry through the creation and evolution of self-driving vehicles. To make a driver-less automobile, engineers must program it to handle high risk situations. These situations could include a head on collision with pedestrians. The car’s main goal should be to make a decision that would avoid hitting the pedestrians and saving the passengers in the car. The use of AI in banking can be traced back to 1987 when Security Pacific National Bank in USA set-up a Fraud Prevention Task force to counter the unauthorized use of debit cards.The use of AI machines in the market in applications such as online trading and decision making has changed major economic theories. For example, AI based buying and selling platforms had changed the law of supply and demand in that it is now possible to easily estimate individualized demand and supply curves and thus individualized pricing. Automation leads to cheaper production. Facebook is in many manners an automation of the old gossip network and we have exactly the same access to it, at the same prices, as Bill Gates does. That’s an increase in equality. This automation makes whatever is being produced more equally available. It’s the competition that does it too. Massive use of artificial intelligence and robot is a threat for capitalism. Capitalism may not survive due to the equality established by AI. If Apple can dispose of its labor force then Samsung, Motorola, Nokia and all the rest can do same thing. The competition between them is bringing down those profit margins so that it is we consumers who benefit from the lower prices. A study shows that over 260 million people are likely to lose their jobs due to automation within 2020. Those who are skilled in emerging tech skills can save themselves from this jobless situation. At every stage of introduction of artificial intelligence, repetitive jobs will be eliminated. But the new technology will also lead to growth and demand for other jobs such as data scientists, analyst for instance. In this situation, the major challenge is to provide a new job to those who lose their job due to automation.

Ethics and threats:
“The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.” — Stephen Hawking

A common concern about the development of artificial intelligence is the potential threat that could pose to humanity. AI can be neither designed nor guaranteed to be benevolent. Humans should not assume machines or robots would treat us favorably, because there is no a priori reason to believe that they would be sympathetic to our system of morality. Philosopher Nick Bostrom from the University of Oxford argues in his book ‘Super intelligence’ that, “If machine brains surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new super intelligence could replace humans as the dominant life form on Earth. Sufficiently intelligent machines could improve their own capabilities faster than human computer scientists, and the outcome could be an existential catastrophe for humans”. Super-intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t aligned with ours, we have a problem. While some experts still assume that human-level AI is centuries away, most AI researches guessed that it would happen before 2060. People now control the planet, not because we’re the strongest, fastest or biggest, but because we’re the smartest. If we’re no longer the smartest, are we assured to remain in control? Many believe that AI can’t control human but others argue that it is possible to control human by robot if they became smarter than us! It’s think about this now, particularly in relation to employment, and try to adjust society ourselves before the AI adjusts it for us.
Artificial intelligence and robotics are almost entirely separate. Sometimes people confuse the two because of the overlap between them: Artificially intelligence robots. Robotics is a branch of technology that deals with robots. Robots are programmable machines which are usually able to carry out a series of actions autonomously or semi autonomously. Technologically, robots have been identified as useful resources in all aspect of human endeavor due to numerous advantages associated with such system. To be a true people companion, robots needs to several things: intelligence, self-awareness, consciousness and ability to understand and respond to emotions, a soft, supple human-like form and full mobility. The idea of some kind of artificial companionships has gradually become normal all over the world, especially in western countries. Kids play with robotic pets, become allies with computer game agents. But in recent time people tend to establish physical relationship with robot which programmed with some particular response, intuition and affection. Some of these people think robot as an alternative to relationship with human. Speaker of “Second International congress on Love and Sex with Robots” which was held in London in 2016, predict that humans will marry robots by 2050.
This peculiar desire is a cause of decline in family bonding, slap to the marriage institution and disrespect for human being. If this act allowed to be spread, many will divorce their wives or husbands while some may give up marriage simply because he or she is enjoying with robot. This is totally illicit and unaccepted in Islamic society. Society has a duty to be cautious and demand appropriate restrictions and regulations in the development of humanoid AI.

Islamic view:
Islam allows Artificial Intelligence within a range that does not resemble any creature. Seemingly there is no conflict with using AI in mass production, automation and such types of technology. From several Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari, we know that it is not permissible to create something like Allah’s creation. Many scholars strictly prohibit using or making human like robot. The degree at which a robot (or any other humanoid form) is considered alike to Allah’s creation is not defined. Artificial Intelligence is permissible as long as AI does not make harm for people society, ethics and humanity. Bangladesh perspective, Economy of Bangladesh is growing rapidly. At present, our per capita income is US$1602, but still 31% people live below national poverty line. In This situation artificial intelligence can help to promote the large scale production line, diversify job and create opportunity for new jobs. But the question is what will do the current manpower, if AI is used instead of them? The answer is not so easy.
We have to ensure that those people who lose their job due to use of artificial intelligence is provided another job in return. This will require long term effort of both government and private sector. This artificial intelligence can use to train our unskilled labor and make them able to join in a better job. Machine dependency is increasing drastically in production. AI can increase production with a minimum cost. In the era of AI and Robotics, we have to cope-up with modern technology. But first of all we have to ensure that we are using AI and Robot for the betterment of mankind, not for destructive purposes. Prescribed rules and regulations must be established in order to avoid bad consequences. Ethics, existing laws and religion can be guideline in this purpose. n

The writer is a student of Department of Accounting & Information Systems of the University of Dhaka.

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